Coconut Farming – The Detailed Guide For Profitable Yield

Coconut Farming – The Detailed Guide For Profitable Yield

Coconut or Cocus Nucifera is a tropical fruit and can be considered a nut, a seed and a fruit simultaneously. It comes from the palm family and is officially a drupe. The word “coconut” comes from the Portuguese word “coco”, which means head or skull, as coconut fruit resembles a human face structure.

This wonderful fruit has a lot of uses, from its flesh to husk, and there is almost no wastage in its consumption. Its peel or husk is used in making ‘‘coir’’, which is coconut fibre. Its flesh is eaten fresh or used in making coconut milk. Also, it is processed to make coconut oil and the water present inside is drunk as it is or used in making tempting beverages.

Let’s see how this beneficial fruit is grown on a large scale and the processes through which it undergoes before reaching our homes.

Varietes Of Coconut

Coconut is classified mainly into two varieties – Tall and Dwarf. However, these are further divided into the following varieties:

Chandrakalpa, Tiptur Tall, Andaman Ordinary, Kerachandra, Kera Sagara, Chowghat Green Dwarf, Kera Sankara, Chowghat Orange Dwarf, Chandra Shankara, Chandra Laksha, Lakshaganga, Anandaganga, etc.

Requirements For Coconut Farming

Below are the essential steps for Coconut cultivation.

Soil Conditions

Coconut thrives best in red sandy loam, alluvial and laterite soil. Moreover, the land should have a high water-holding capacity, and the pH range should be 5.0 to 8.0. In addition, it requires a soil of at least 1.2 m depth and proper water drainage, whereas clayey soil and waterlogging must be avoided as it damages the plant.

Climatic Conditions

Coconut can survive varying climates, but a tropical fruit is best obtained in tropical conditions. For best quality coconut, the preferred temperature is around 27° Celsius, and the relative humidity should be more than 60%. Furthermore, it needs 1000 mm to 3000 mm rainfall annually, and a 2000 mm rainfall is perfect for the best yield.

Land Preparation

For loamy soil, pits of size 1 m x 1 m x 1 m are dug up and filled with topsoil up to 50 cm. For laterite soils, the pits should be 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1.2 m and filled with ash and cow dung to 60 cm in height. The pit digging process can be done by using the Mahindra jivo 365 or any powerful machinery. Also, the coconut husk is used in its planting. The husk is layered inside the pits to conserve moisture and provide nutrition.


The coconut seedlings are prepared in nurseries and ready to be transplanted when they are one year old with 10 cm girth and bear at least 5-6 leaves where the soil is waterlogged, which is ideal for planting those seedlings which are 18 to 24 months old. The planting process takes place before monsoon, usually around May, for higher-quality growth.

Plantation Spacing

The recommended method for coconut plantation is a square pattern, and the spacing should be 7.5 m x 7.5 m. Moreover, this system will produce 177 trees per hectare. However, this spacing can vary depending on different regions for cultivation.

Irrigation Needs

To properly develop trees, coconut requires 40 litres of water per tree in one week in summer irrigation. In contrast, it needs about 200 litres of water every 4-5 days per tree in basin irrigation.

Crop Maintenance

Manuring is properly done during the first year of planting to ensure good quality fruit-bearing. It is recommended to use organic manure such as cow dung, compost, farmyard manure, etc., whereas the use of chemical fertiliser should be done three months post-planting, and farmers can use the Massey 245 or any other tractor for even distribution of fertilisers and manure. Moreover, the fertilisers can be applied in 2 parts May and June & September and October.


Coconut trees are utilises for almost 70 years since planting, and in ideal growing conditions, harvesting takes place once a month. For culinary purposes and seed uses, 12-month-old coconuts are harvested within a 30 to 45-day interval. This process is mainly done manually with the help of a coconut climber.

Now, the coconuts are ready to be collected and packed to reach our homes to provide many benefits and enhance our cooking.

I hope this blog has provided you all the information regarding coconut farming and if you like this blog & want to read more such blogs, stay connected with us.

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