ovarian cancer

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Its Treatment

Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. According to the American Cancer Society, approximately 22,280 new cases of ovarian cancer were diagnosed and 14,240 deaths occurred due to this disease in 2014.

However, only about 25% of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer survive at least five years after diagnosis. This means that 75% of women die within 5 years of being diagnosed.

 

Ovarian Cancer Symptoms

 Ovarian cancer is usually detected at its earliest stages through symptoms such as pelvic pain, bloating, abdominal swelling, backache, constipation, frequent urination, loss of appetite, weight gain, and difficulty sleeping.

Other symptoms may include persistent or irregular vaginal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and urinary frequency.

 

The Causes Of Ovarian Cancer

 According to top oncologist in India ( cancer doctors) the causes of ovarian cancer are unknown but likely include hereditary factors, age, diet, obesity, exposure to toxins, lifestyle habits, family history, hormone therapy, and certain types of infections.

]Women who smoke cigarettes, consume alcohol, or use oral contraceptives have an increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.

 

Risk Factors For Ovarian Cancer

 Women who have had their ovaries removed due to surgery or medical conditions, such as endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or fibroids, are at greater risk of developing ovarian cancer later in life.

A woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer increases after menopause, especially if she has never given birth. Having a first-degree relative—parent, sibling, or child—with ovarian cancer increases her risk by approximately 40 percent.

The risk factors for developing ovarian cancer include family history, genetic predisposition, age, race, ethnicity, obesity, early menarche, late menopause, infertility, nulliparity, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, previous pelvic surgery, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, exposure to radiation, environmental toxins, and diet.

 

How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?

 A physical exam and blood tests are used to diagnose ovarian cancer. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound scans, CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, may be performed. Tests to detect CA125 levels in the bloodstream may help determine whether the tumor is growing.

Related Article – What are the steps involved before and after oral cancer screening?

 

Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

1. Antibiotics

Antibiotics kill bacteria. When used properly, they are effective against many bacterial infections. However, their indiscriminate use has led to the rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. This problem is particularly serious in the case of gonorrhea, tuberculosis, and salmonella.

2. Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids are hormones produced by the adrenal glands and help regulate blood pressure, immune function, and inflammation. They are commonly prescribed to treat asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune diseases. Overuse of corticosteroids is linked to osteoporosis and cataracts.

3. Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy refers to the treatment of cancer using drugs. Drugs are chemicals that interfere with the ability of cells to reproduce. Most chemotherapy drugs act by damaging DNA or inhibiting cell division.

Chemotherapies may cause hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, fatigue, and poor appetite. There are two types of chemotherapeutic agents: cytotoxic agents and antimetabolites.

Cytotoxic agents destroy rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Antimetabolite drugs inhibit enzymes involved in cell reproduction.

4. Immunosuppressants

Immunosuppressant drugs prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs. Common immunosuppressants include cyclosporine, tacrolimus, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids.

The most common side effects of immunosuppressive therapy include increased risk of infection and lymphoma.

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