The potato crop is an essential vegetable in the whole world. It meets most of the vegetable needs of the world’s vegetarian population. It is a cheap and economical crop. Apart from carbohydrates, protein, starch, vitamin C, amino acids like tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine etc., are found in abundance in potatoes. Potatoes are grown in almost all the states in India. Most potatoes are grown in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, Karnataka, Assam and Madhya Pradesh. This crop is originally from South America, and this crop is used for vegetables and making chips. This crop is also used to produce starch and alcohol. Swaraj 963 tractor model is best for Potato farming.
A scientific method of potato cultivation
According to the availability of suitable climate in different parts of India, potato is cultivated throughout the year in one or the other region. But for excellent and seasonal production of potato, moderate winter is required. Also, shorter days are needed. In the country’s plains, potato cultivation is prevalent during the Rabi season in winter. Long nights and short bright days from October to March are good for potatoes to grow. The optimum temperature for potato growth and development should be between 15-25 degrees Celsius. The temperature required is about 25°C for germination, 20°C for culture and 17 to 19°C for tuber development.
Potatoes grown inside the soil, so the ground must be friable. For a better yield of potato, the pH value of soil should be between 5.2 to 6.5. However, the sandy loam or silty loam with biomass is considered best for cultivation.
Before cultivating potatoes, farmers should prepare their fields with scientific methods. Generally, the first ploughing should done with soil turning plough. The second and third ploughing should done with an indigenous plough or harrow. If there is a delay in farming, the soil should be brittle by using a pat. Swaraj 735 xt tractor is excellent for land preparation.
Selection of seed
Seed selection is the most critical factor in potato cultivation. Selecting the right seed is the most important thing after the preparation of the field. To choose good quality disease-free seeds for the farmers. Large-sized seeds yield more, but the high cost of seeds does not give enough profit. Seeds of tiny sizes will be cheaper, but there is a danger of producing germy potatoes. 3 cms for an excellent profit to the farmers. Potatoes of size 3.5 cm or 30-40 grams in weight should sown in the form of seeds.
Time of planting
North India is the largest producer of potatoes in India. Frost is common in North India during the winter season. In such weather, potatoes take less time to grow. Early sowing gives a long time for growth. The yield is not high because growth and tuber formation in such early crops occur in unfavourable temperatures. In addition, there is a risk of incomplete germination and rotting of seeds. Potato sowing in North India should completed by the end of December. On the other hand, the suitable time for sowing potatoes in the north-western parts of the country is the first fortnight of October. In eastern India, potatoes planted from mid-October to January.
Way of Sowing potatoes in the field
Scientific sowing of potatoes in the field increases the production. However, farmers should keep in mind that the spacing of the plants should not be less. Plant spacing increases competition for light, water and nutrients. As a result, potatoes of small size are produced by keeping more distance, where the number of plants per hectare decreases, the yield declines due to an increase in potato value. Therefore, farmers should make a proper balance between the rows and the distance of the plants so that neither the yield is reduced nor the size of the potato is reduced.
While giving fertilizer in potato cultivation, some things should also considered. After mixing 50-60 tons of decomposed cow dung, 20 kg of neem cake and 20 kg of castor oil cake, sprinkling in equal quantity per acre of land, ploughing, and ploughing should be done. After this, when the crop is 25-30 days old, mixing neem decoction in 10 litres of cow urine should prepare the mixture well and sprinkle it on the crop. The second and third spraying should be done at an interval of every 15-20 days.
For this, 50-60 tonnes of decomposed cow dung, 100 to 120 kg of nitrogen, 45 to 50 kg of phosphorus are required per hectare. The amount of cow dung and phosphorus fertilizers should be mixed well in the soil before planting in preparation for the field. After this, nitrogen fertilizer can be used after 25, 45 and 60 days after transplanting by dividing it into 2 or 3 parts.
The early potato varieties are Kufri, Chandramukhi, Kufri, Kuber and Kufri Bahar. Among all these, Kufri Chandramukhi has been considered the highest yielder. Kufri Badshah, Kufri Bahar and Kufri Jyoti have been suitable varieties for the medieval crop of potato. Kufri Sindoori is considered more beneficial among late types.
For further details, stay with us.