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What is Freight Class and EBITDA

What is Freight Shipping?

Transportation of bulk commodities by road, air or multimodal transport is described as freight. Owing to the expansion of e-commerce firms throughout the world freight has become an essential element of many companies.

Therefore, it is known as freight shipping when a bigger cargo transport is required throughout the country or the world. Air transport, land shipping and maritime transport are also included in freight shipping. The items are normally placed onto big transport containers on pallets in order to carry them to a final destination.

Options for Freight

To accommodate the products quantity required to be shipped, expense and delivery time freight have several options to consider from and deliver your shipment. Generally, they are divided into three subtypes that includes:

FTL (Full Truck Load)

LTL (Less than Truckload)

PTL (Partial Truckload)

Full Truckload or FTL

The shipment that includes a truck consisting one shipment only is regarded as the FTL or full truckload. The FTL shipment is feasible and cost effective option for your shipment when it is large enough to be accommodated in any other shipping option. Moreover, the FTL provides faster shipment while avoiding mishandling of materials.

Less-than-Truckload or LTL

This is what basically forms the freight classes and we will be going to discuss in this article. The LTL shipping is the one that delivers different types of shipments in a truck. For smaller and products having low density the shipments are sent via less than truckload (LTL) option.

Partial Truckload or PTL

The intermediate option between LTL and FTL is the partial truckload (PTL). A single truck only has to transport shipping articles from pickup point to delivery point, in PTL however, the route might become long owing to various delivery points the truck requires to make.

What is a Freight Class?

A freight class is a standard of the shipment transporting industry and a grouping method for goods carried over the LTL (less-than-truckload) of the freight transportation network. 

It ensures that all consumers have to pay a uniform cost when their cargo is sent. The freight class allotted depends on the individual goods or the total density of the product. There are some online freight class calculator tools helps to find the freight class value.

Freight Classification

The NMFC (National Motor Freight Classification) with matching classes for each product is allocated by the NMFTA. This spans from class 50 to class 500 on the basis of four criteria of transport: density, handling, liability and stowability. 

Together, these four define the transportability of a product and offer a consistent class-by-class assessment technique which is utilized by LTL carriers. Similar transit features of commodities fit into the same class. The more difficult, risky and expensive transit for the carrier, the greater the class.

Factors to Determine Freight Class

In determining the class of a freight, that decides what would be the cost of sending that shipment the four factors are considered. These four factors that defines the class of a freight include density, handling, lability and stowability and are discussed below:


The amount of space an item takes up in relation to its weight, and it is measured in pounds per cubic foot, forms the density of the product. Products that are compact and have a greater density will fall into a lower freight class and will be less expensive to ship than bulky items because of their lower density.


When delivering an item, the amount of care that must be exercised is taken into consideration. If the item is delicate, requires special handling, or has hazardous qualities, it will be classified as a higher freight class and will thus be more expensive to transport.


Items of a greater monetary worth or those are more likely to be stolen or damaged are placed in a higher freight class and are thus more expensive to send than other items.


It is determined by how readily an item of freight may be moved in conjunction with other commodities and is termed as stowability. Perishable, flammable, and hazardous freight are all shipped under certain shipment regulations, and they cannot be carried with specific goods.

Related : The future of food delivery

What is EBITDA

EBITDA is an acronym used in finance which stands for Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization. It is used to measure the financial well being of a business. With EBITDA, the profitability and efficiency of a firm is assessed by excluding accounting and financial conditions. 

EBITDA is often reported annually within the industry. However, it is also expressed quarterly or monthly sometimes in the same way as any other income or cash flow metric. Although the EBITDA of last year could be helpful in analyzing the company’s success in the near future, it will lose its timeliness in the next year. 

That’s why an EBITDA presented by a firm throughout the previous 12 months is stated as “LTM EBITDA”. Therefore, EBITDA is an alternative way to measure the earnings of a business. It enables investors to compare several firms without taking into account specific costs that can affect calculations. 

You must be aware of the EBITDA Margin, it should be noted here that EBITDA and EBITDA Margin both two distinct terms. As the former measures the operational profits and cash flows of a business as is an earning’s measure. Whereas the later (EBITDA Margin) reflects the profitability of a firm and is a performance metric.

What is EBITDA Margin?

An EBITDA margin is determined by dividing earnings of a firm before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization by a total profit, so it can evaluate its operational profitability and efficiency. 

An EBITDA margin generally provides investors and entrepreneurs a better understanding of an enterprise’s operating profitability and cash flow and is a percentage of total earnings of the company.

In contrast to other measures to measure profitability, an EBITDA margin looks at the present condition of the enterprise and profitability in a broad spectrum, while avoiding the particular cost lines.

The depreciation is the decline in goods value over time whereas amortization is the spread of loan payments. While excluding depreciation or amortization, the EBITDA margin “earnings” is calculated from items like cost of goods (COGs) and sales general and administrative (SG & A). 

Components of EBITDA

The acronym EBITDA as mentioned above stands for Earnings Before Interest Taxes Depreciation and Amortization. This abbreviation explains how this metric requires to be calculated i.e. what factors should be considered and which financial metrics should be ignored.

The financial components that are part of the EBITDA formula are mentioned below separately.


The costs to companies are charged as the rate of interest. Moreover, the loans and equity income are reliant on a company’s financial strategy and are not immediately related to its activities.


The company expenditures are charged by the government as tax. Taxes due rely upon many various elements, frequently foreign, and indicate little about the profitability of business activities. 


Business expenditures are incurred and are a non-cash cost related to the steady decrease in fixed assets. Depreciation of tangible assets results from investments a business wants or needs to do. Consequently, they don’t have any meaning in rigid business processes.


That is also a non-cash cost, in which the lifespan of intangible assets is gradually decreased.

How to Calculate EBITDA

There are two ways or formulas with which the EBITDA of any company could be calculated effectively depending upon the company needs. The optimal technique of computation to utilize is based on your business facts and metric objectives. But as long as you know your net profit or operating income already, you can calculate it the way you want.

The first formula for EBITDA calculations corresponds to the adding up of the operational profit of the company and the expenses paid in non-cash transactions, such as depreciation (value reduction) and amortization.

The second formula for the calculation of EBITDA however includes, except for interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, all expenditures should be subtracted from the net income.

Therefore, the EBITDA formula could be represented as given below if you want to calculate your net income.

EBITDA = net profit + interest + taxes + depreciation and amortization​

However, if you are considering operating income instead of net income the following formula is used

EBITDA = operating income + depreciation and amortization​


I hope you liked this article to learn useful information regarding ebitda. Ebitda is very crucial for the profitability and efficiency of a firm and it is a main reason that large scale organizations put so much emphasis on it. Ebitda calculator helps you calculate ebitda values online without performing manual operation.

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